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Language resource management — Linguistic annotation framework
Abbreviation: LAF
Scope: Corpus annotation
Topic: Generic Corpus Annotation
Standard body: ISO

Since June 2012 LAF (stands for Linguistic Annotation Framework) has been accepted and ranked as ISO 24612:2012 standard providing an architecture for creating, multiple-annotating and managing linguistic resources. The framework specifies the glossary, the common mechanisms of the abstract data model and methods for descriptions of multiple linguistic data annotations. LAF defines the mechanisms for implementing constraints in an annotation scheme, but it does not have specific constraints for individual annotation schemes.

The abstract data model of LAF can be built by using various kinds of annotation formats. Different user-defined annotation formats can be mapped to the LAF abstract data model with the help of the XML serialization format, called the Graph Annotation Format (GrAF). GraF is a pivot format for mapping from an annotation scheme into another annotation scheme. In this way, users can choose their own annotation formats, transfer them into the pivot format for further interchange and/or processing, and eventually to transfer it back into the original format.

In the future, LAF should be able to represent most of linguistic information of language resources for different media types. The primary data and the annotation documents will be separated.

Related Standard(s):
  • DCR

    The LAF architecture includes the data elements that are defined in ISO 12620 (Data Category Registry)

Other standards in the same topic(s):
Recommended Reading:
  • L. Romary and N. Ide, "International standard for a linguistic annotation framework," Natural Language Engineering, vol. 10, no. 3-4, pp. 211–225, 2004.
  • N. Ide and K. Suderman, "GrAF: A graph-based format for linguistic annotations", in Proceedings of the linguistic annotation workshop, Prague, 2007.
  • N. Ide and K. Suderman, "The linguistic annotation framework: A standard for annotation interchange and merging," Language Resources and Evaluation, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 395–418, 2014.

Abbreviation: LAF-2012 [not official, only for reference in this website]
Version Number: ISO 24612:2012
Status: International Standard
Release Date: 2012-06-15
  1. ISO/TC 37/SC 4/WG 1
  • metaLanguage: XML
  • grammarClass: LTG
  • formalModel: Graph
  • notation: Standt off
  • multipleHierarchies: standoff annotation
Related Standard(s):
  • XML

    LAF's pivot format GrAF is an application of XML.

  • XCES

    Primary document header is based on the XCES.

Used in CLARIN centre(s):