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SIMPLE Core Ontology
Abbreviation: SIMPLE
Scope: Upper level ontology
Topic: Ontology
Standard body: Other

SIMPLE Core Ontology (Lenci et al., 2000) is created within SIMPLE Project for creation of semantic dictionaries for 12 European languages. The role of the SIMPLE Core ontology is to cluster the meaning of the words in the dictionaries. The meaning is represented via means of lexical templates, where each template is connected to a concept in the ontology and the fields of the template corresponds to the restrictions over the concepts expressed in the ontology. The lexical model of SIMPLE project extends the Generative Lexicon (GL) model. The SIMPLE project developed further the GL model by constructing an upper ontology that reflects the four qualia roles of GL model – Formal, Constitutive, Telic, and Agentive. The SIMPLE Core Ontology can be seen as a set of four interconnected ontologies: One ontology consisting of a hierarchy of concepts, additionally connected to other concepts via relations and functions. This sub-ontology corresponds to Formal qualia role. The other three ontologies consist of hierarchies of relations. Each of the relational ontologies corresponds to one of the qualia roles. Additionally, the concept ontology is extended with complex types which consist of two (or more) concepts which represent colocalized entities (see also DOLCE). The role of the complex types is to represent the regular polysemy in the lexicon. The ontology is represented as taxonomy of concepts and flat lists of relations. The SIMPLE Ontology contains 193 concepts and about 60 relations.

Other standards in the same topic(s):
Recommended Reading:
  • A. Lenci et al., "SIMPLE: A General Framework for the Development of Multilingual Lexicons," International Journal of Lexicography, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 249-263, 2000. Available:

Abbreviation: SIMPLE 2000 [not official, only for reference in this website]
Release Date: 2000
  1. Alessandro Lenci
  2. Nuria Bel
  3. Federica Busa
  4. Nicoletta Calzolari
  5. Elisabetta Gola
  6. Monica Monachini
  7. Antoine Ogonowski
  8. Ivonne Peters
  9. Wim Peters
  10. Nilda Ruimy
  11. Marta Villegas
  12. Antonio Zampolli