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Ontologies of Linguistic Annotation
Abbreviation: OLiA
Scope: Multilingual ontologies for linguistic annotation
Topic: Ontology, Terminology
Standard body:
Keywords: linguistic ontology, linguistic annotation, language description, grammatical categories, linguistic terminology, annotation schemes, tag sets

The Ontologies of Linguistic Annotations, shortly OLiA, are multilingual ontologies of various linguistic data categories.

OLiA was originally developed in the context of the collaborative project "Sustainability of Linguistic Resources" between three German Collaborative Research Centres (SFBs): SFB 441 (University Tübingen), SFB 538 (University Hamburg) and SFB 632 (University Potsdam/Berlin).

OLiA represents, in forms of annotation schemes, different morphological, morphosyntactic and syntactic phenomena, such as inflectional morphology, word classes, phrase and edge labels of different syntax annotations, etc. Furthermore, it provides a tag set for annotating typical discourse phenomena, such as co-reference, discourse relations, discourse structure and information structure.

OLiA provides:

  • an ontology of reference terms (OLiA Reference Model) that specifies classes for linguistic categories, and grammatical features and properties defining relations between them;

  • ontological models of annotation schemes (Multiple OLiA Annotation Models). There are 34 annotation models for about 69 different languages or language stages;

  • for every Annotation Model, a Linking Model, that specifies the relationships between the concepts in ontological models of annotation schemes (Annotation Models) and the generalized vocabulary for discourse annotation (Reference Model)

Related Standard(s):
  • DCR

    The OLiA Reference Model is linked to ISOcat.

  • GOLD

    The OLiA Reference Model is linked to GOLD.

  • OWL

    The annotation schemes of the annotation models are formalized as OWL/DL ontologies.

Other standards in the same topic(s):
Recommended Reading:
  • C. Chiarcos, "Ontologies of Linguistic Annotation: Survey and perspectives", in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, Istanbul, Turkey, 2012.

Abbreviation: OLiA
Status: Standard
Release Date: n/a
  1. Collaborative project "Sustainability of Linguistic Resources"

OLia includes 32 annotation models and almost as many of linking models for about 70 different languages. Each model has its own date